Microprocessor Tutorial Microprocessor

MICROPROCESSOR TUTORIAL
Introduction

CPU STRUCTURE
Introduction
ALU
Control Unit
Register Array
System Bus
Quiz

Execute instruction
Diagram showing the basics of the instruction execution cycle. Each instruction is fetched from memory, decoded, and then executed.
Once a program is in memory it has to be executed. To do this, each instruction must be looked at, decoded and acted upon in turn until the program is completed. This is achieved by the use of what is termed the 'instruction execution cycle', which is the cycle by which each instruction in turn is processed. However, to ensure that the execution proceeds smoothly, it is is also necessary to synchronise the activites of the processor.

To keep the events synchronised, the clock located within the CPU control unit is used. This produces regular pulses on the system bus at a specific frequency, so that each pulse is an equal time following the last. This clock pulse frequency is linked to the clock speed of the processor - the higher the clock speed, the shorter the time between pulses. Actions only occur when a pulse is detected, so that commands can be kept in time with each other across the whole computer unit.

The instruction execution cycle can be clearly divided into three different parts, which will now be looked at in more detail. For more on each part of the cycle click the relevant heading, or use the next arrow as before to proceed though each stage in order.

Fetch Cycle
The fetch cycle takes the address required from memory, stores it in the instruction register, and moves the program counter on one so that it points to the next instruction.

Decode Cycle
Here, the control unit checks the instruction that is now stored within the instruction register. It determines which opcode and addressing mode have been used, and as such what actions need to be carried out in order to execute the instruction in question.

Execute Cycle
The actual actions which occur during the execute cycle of an instruction depend on both the instruction itself, and the addressing mode specified to be used to access the data that may be required. However, four main groups of actions do exist, which are discussed in full later on.

Clicking the next arrow below will take you to further information relating to the fetch cycle.

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© Matthew Eastaugh, 2004
Fetch instruction Decode instruction Execute instruction